Refraction Artifact


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Note how there appears to be a double image of this aortic valve seen in short axis.  In this case it is due to refraction of ultrasound waves headed toward the tricuspid valve by a structure in the near field. These hit the aortic valve and return to the probe making it appear that the aortic valve is also arising from that point.
One can adjust the depth or alter the direction of the probe to reduce this artifact.